Sunday, June 26, 2016

Research byte: A cross-syndrome evaluation of a new attention rating scale: The Scale of Attention in intellectual Disability via BrowZine

A cross-syndrome evaluation of a new attention rating scale: The Scale of Attention in intellectual Disability
Freeman, Nerelie C.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John R.; Cornish, Kim M.
Research in Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 57 – 2016: 18 - 28

10.1016/j.ridd.2016.06.005

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Tuesday, June 7, 2016

Texas Courts Rely on “Of Mice and Men” to Define Intellectual Disability and Sentence People to Death



Texas Courts Rely on "Of Mice and Men" to Define Intellectual Disability and Sentence People to Death

This piece originally appeared at Salon. Bobby James Moore has a lifelong intellectual disability,…

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Read it on aclu.org




Monday, June 6, 2016

SCOTUS Atkins activity: MOORE, BOBBY J. V. TEXAS The petition for a writ of certiorari is granted


MOORE, BOBBY J. V. TEXAS The petition for a writ of certiorari is granted. One question presented relates to Texas’s problematic, non scientific Briseno factors for adjudicating Atkins claims.   SCOTUS Blog has all the papers here.

 

David Kaye on Hall v Florida-- "Deadly statistics: Quantifying an "unacceptable risk in capital punishment" - In press article in Law, Probability and Statistics

The following article is "in press" in Law, Probability and Statistics.  A preview can be found here.

 
Deadly Statistics:
Quantifying an “Unacceptable Risk” in Capital Punishment
David H. Kaye*
Law, Probability & Risk
Vol. 15, No. 4, Dec. 2016 (in press)

Abstract: In Atkins v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Eighth Amendment ban on
cruel and unusual punishment precludes capital punishment for intellectually disabled offenders.
Death-penalty states responded with laws defining intellectual disability in various ways. In Hall v.
Florida, the Court narrowly struck down the use of a measured IQ of 70 to mark the upper limit of
intellectual disability because it created “an unacceptable risk that persons with intellectual disability
will be executed.” But the Court was unclear if not inconsistent in its description of an upper limit
that would be acceptable. Four dissenting Justices accused the majority not only of misconstruing
the Eighth Amendment, but also of misunderstanding elementary statistics and psychometrics. This
article uses more complete statistical reasoning to explicate the Court’s concept of unacceptable risk.
It describes better ways to control the risk of error than the Court’s confidence intervals, and it argues
that, to the extent that the Eighth Amendment allows any quantitative cut score in determining an
offender’s intellectual disability, these more technically appropriate methods are constitutionally
permissible.

Keywords: Hall v. Florida, cruel and unusual, Eighth Amendment, capital punishment, intellectual
disability, IQ, psychometrics, cut-score, measurement error, standard error, confidence interval,
shrinkage estimator, Bayesian inference, credible region, burden of persuasion

Contents
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
I. The Intellectual Disability Trilogy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
II. The Need to Allow States to Use Cut Scores and the Meaning of “Significantly Subaverage”
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
III. True Scores and Single-measurement Error Within Classical Test Theory.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
A. First- and Second-order Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
B. True Scores and Measurement Error.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
C. Reliability and Standard Error of Measurement (SEM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
D. Confidence Intervals from the SEM (SEM-IS).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
E. SEM-adjusted-maximum Score (SEM-AM).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
F. Confidence Intervals from the Standard Error of Estimate (SEE-IS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
IV. Other Statistical Issues in and Outside of Hall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
A. Multiple Scores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
B. Credible Regions (BCR). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Summary and Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Wednesday, June 1, 2016

Only Two Justices Want To Tackle Whether The Death Penalty Should End

An Atkins related ruling

Only Two Justices Want To Tackle Whether The Death Penalty Should End

From News, a Flipboard magazine by Flipboard Newsdesk

Stephen Breyer and Ruth Bader Ginsburg are virtually alone in this effort. Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer: Alone in their…

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Monday, May 30, 2016

Perlin on The Death Penalty and Mental Disability [feedly]



----
Perlin on The Death Penalty and Mental Disability
// CrimProf Blog

Michael L. Perlin (New York Law School) has posted 'Merchants and Thieves, Hungry for Power': Prosecutorial Misconduct and Passive Judicial Complicity in Death Penalty Trials of Defendants with Mental Disabilities (Washington and Lee Law Review, Vol. 73, 2016, Forthcoming) on...
----

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Wednesday, May 4, 2016

Morse on Law and the Sciences of the Brain/Mind [feedly]



----
Morse on Law and the Sciences of the Brain/Mind
// CrimProf Blog

Stephen Morse (University of Pennsylvania Law School) has posted Law and the Sciences of the Brain/Mind (Oxford Handbook on Law and the Regulation of Technology, Oxford, Forthcoming) on SSRN. Here is the abstract: This chapter is a submission to the...
----

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

The Handbook of Intellectual Disability and Clinical Psychology Practice: 2nd Edition (Paperback)



The Handbook of Intellectual Disability and Clinical Psychology Practice: 2nd Edition (Paperback)

The Handbook of Intellectual Disability and Clinical Psychology Practice will equip clinical…

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Monday, April 11, 2016

Panel to hold clemency hearing for Georgia death row inmate



Panel to hold clemency hearing for Georgia death row inmate

From News, a Flipboard magazine by Flipboard Newsdesk

ATLANTA (AP) — A Georgia death row inmate scheduled to die this week was neglected and mistreated as a child and has substantial…

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Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Research Byte: A NIT-picking analysis: Abstractness dependence of subtests correlated to their Flynn effect magnitudes via BrowZine

A NIT-picking analysis: Abstractness dependence of subtests correlated to their Flynn effect magnitudes
Armstrong, Elijah L.; te Nijenhuis, Jan; Woodley of Menie, Michael A.; Fernandes, Heitor B.F.; Must, Olev; Must, Aasa
Intelligence, Vol. 57 – 2016: 1 - 6

10.1016/j.intell.2016.02.009

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Wednesday, March 23, 2016

Ronell Wilson's Atkines ID/MR death penalty decision to be appealed

Andrew Keshner, New York Law Journal, March 23, 2016

The Eastern District U.S. Attorney's Office will appeal a judge's decision to vacate a death sentence for a man convicted of murdering two police officers.

Prosecutors filed notice Tuesday saying they would challenge the decision to undo Ronell Wilson's death sentence. Eastern District Judge Nicholas Garaufis said Wilson was ineligible for capital punishment because he was intellectually disabled in the eyes of the law (NYLJ, March 16).
Garaufis had ruled in February 2013 that Wilson was not intellectually disabled and, therefore, eligible for capital punishment. Later that year, a jury said Wilson deserved death for the 2003 killings of undercover detectives Rodney Andrews and James Nemorin. Wilson appealed, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit sent the case back to Garaufis to review Wilson's mental capacity in light of a 2014 U.S. Supreme Court case, Hall v. Florida, 134 S. Ct. 1986.

On March 15, Garaufis said he would impose life imprisonment without the possibility of parole based on a "careful interpretation of evolving Supreme Court precedent and a sober review of the evidence." Wilson was convicted of the crimes in 2006; the same jury voted for execution. In 2010, the circuit kept the jury's guilt determination intact, but ordered retrial on the penalty phase. Assistant U.S. Attorney Amy Busa filed the notice of appeal in U.S. v.
Wilson. 04-cr-1016.

Prior posts at this blog regarding this Atkins case can be found here (access to court decisions) and here

Sunday, March 20, 2016

NY killer off death row as definition of disabled gets tweak

Some press coverage re Ronell Wilson decision.

NY killer off death row as definition of disabled gets tweak

From News, a Flipboard magazine by Flipboard Newsdesk

NEW YORK (AP) — Prosecutors say Ronell Wilson is a calculating murderer. Since his imprisonment for killing two New York City police…

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Wednesday, March 16, 2016

Atkins MR/ID Court Decision: Ronell Wilson v US (NY; 2014) Atkins decision overturned (Wilson v US/NY, 2016)


Yesterday the prior decision (Wilson v US/NY, 2014) to not excuse Ronell Wilson as per Atkins, was overturned.  The new 2016 decision can be found here.  Wilson is currently the only individual on death row in NY as per the federal death penalty (click here for prior post).  This has been a very high profile death penalty case.

As per my policy, being one of the "six experts" mentioned in the decision as having provided an expert declaration, I will not comment on any aspects of the court decision.


Atkins ID/MR Court Decisions: Nixon v Florida update--2016 initial brief


A initial brief was recently filed with the Florida Supreme Court in the Atkins appeal of Nixon (Nixon v Florida).  A prior 2009 court decision can be found here

Tuesday, March 8, 2016

Research Byte: Comparison of norms from three Spanish-language and one English-language WAIS-III tests (select subtests)

Norm Comparisons of the Spanish-Language and English-Language WAIS-III: Implications for Clinical Assessment and Test Adaptation.  Funes, Cynthia M.; Hernandez Rodriguez, Juventino; Lopez, Steven Regeser.  Psychological Assessment, Mar 7 , 2016, No Pagination Specified. http://dx.doi.org.ezp1.lib.umn.edu/10.1037/pas0000302

Abstract

  1. This study provides a systematic comparison of the norms of 3 Spanish-language Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS–III) batteries from Mexico, Spain, and Puerto Rico, and the U.S. English-language WAIS–III battery. Specifically, we examined the performance of the 4 normative samples on 2 identical subtests (Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding) and 1 nearly identical subtest (Block Design). We found that across most age groups the means associated with the Spanish-language versions of the 3 subtests were lower than the means of the U.S. English-language version. In addition, we found that for most age ranges the Mexican subsamples scored lower than the Spanish subsamples. Lower educational levels of Mexicans and Spaniards compared to U.S. residents are consistent with the general pattern of findings. These results suggest that because of the different norms, applying any of the 3 Spanish-language versions of the WAIS–III generally risks underestimating deficits, and that applying the English-language WAIS–III norms risks overestimating deficits of Spanish-speaking adults. There were a few exceptions to these general patterns. For example, the Mexican subsample ages 70 years and above performed significantly better on the Digit Symbol and Block Design than did the U.S. and Spanish subsamples. Implications for the clinical assessment of U.S. Spanish-speaking Latinos and test adaptation are discussed with an eye toward improving the clinical care for this community. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Saturday, March 5, 2016

The Death Penalty and Intellectual Disability



The Death Penalty and Intellectual Disability

This book is the authoritative resource on the application of diagnostic information concerning intellectual disability (ID) in death penalty cases. In a…

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Friday, March 4, 2016

Research Byte: Was Intelligence necessary? via BrowZine

Thoughtful reflections on the journal Intelligence by its founder, Doug Detterman.

Was Intelligence necessary?
Detterman, Douglas K.
Intelligence, Vol. 55 – 2016: v - viii

10.1016/S0160-2896(16)30058-7

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Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Death Penalty Cases after Hall and DSM-5


J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 44:1:96-105 (March 2016)

Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Death Penalty Cases after Hall and DSM-5

  1. Thomas J. Guilmette, PhD

+Author Affiliations

  1. Dr. Hagan is in independent practice and is Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA; Dr. Drogin is Lecturer on Psychiatry (Part-Time), Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, serving in the Program in Psychiatry and the Law, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA; Dr. Guilmette is Professor of Psychology, Providence College, and Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI.
  1. Address correspondence to: Leigh D. Hagan, PhD, P.O. Box 350, Chesterfield, VA 23832. E-mail: lhagan@leighhagan.com.

Abstract

DSM-5 and Hall v. Florida (2014) have dramatically refocused attention on the assessment of adaptive functioning in death penalty cases. In this article, we address strategies for assessing the adaptive functioning of defendants who seek exemption from capital punishment pursuant to Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In particular, we assert that evaluations of adaptive functioning should address assets as well as deficits; seek to identify credible and reliable evidence concerning the developmental period and across the lifespan; distinguish incapacity from the mere absence of adaptive behavior; adhere faithfully to test manual instructions for using standardized measures of adaptive functioning; and account for potential bias on the part of informants. We conclude with brief caveats regarding the standard error of measurement (SEM) in light of Hall, with reference to examples of ordinary life activities that directly illuminate adaptive functioning relevant to capital cases.


Wednesday, February 17, 2016

More on the Composite Score Extremity Effect: Awesome animations at Joel Schneiders blog


You must visit Joel Schneider's blog to see his awesome animations that help explain the composite score extremity effect.  They are worth viewing, even if one does not understand them :)  Click on wordpress.com and enjoy.
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Tuesday, February 16, 2016

Why full scale IQ scores are often much lower (or higher) than the part scores? Dr. Joel Schneider on the "composite score extremity effect"

Bingo.  There is finally an excellent, relatively brief, explanation of the phenomena of why full scale IQ scores often diverge markedly from the arithmetic average of the component index or subtest scores.

This composite score extremity effect (Schneider, 2016)  has been well known by users of the WJ batteries.  Why....because the WJ has placed the global IQ composite and the individual tests on the same scale (M=100; SD=15).  In contrast, most other cognitive ability batteries (e.g., Wechslers) have the individual test scores on a different scale (M=10; SD=3).  The use of different scales has hidden this statistical score effect from users.  It has always been present.  I have written about this many times.  One can revisit my latest post on this issue here.

Now that the WISC-V measures a broader array of cognitive abilities (e.g., 5 index scores), users have been asking the same "why does the total IQ score not equal the average of the index scores?"  Why?  Because the five index scores are on the same scale as the full scale IQ score...and thus this composite score extremity effect is not hidden.  A recent thread on the NASP Community Exchange provides examples of psychologists wondering about this funky test score issue (click here to read).

As per usual, Dr. Schneider has provided intuitive explanations of this score effect, and for those who want more, extremely well written technical explanations.

The WJ IV ASB 7 can be downloaded by clicking here.  Although written in the context of the WJ IV, this ASB is relevant to all intelligence test batteries that provide a global IQ score that is the sum of part scores.

Kudos to Dr. Schneider.

Click on image to enlarge




Thursday, February 4, 2016

Research Byte: The relations between CHC cognitive abilities and aspects of social support


Which aspects of social support are associated with which cognitive abilities for which people?

ArticleinThe Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences · January 2016with12 Reads
Impact Factor: 3.21 · DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbv119

Abstract

Objectives.
To assess the relations between 11 aspects of social support and five cognitive abilities (vocabulary, reasoning, spatial visualization, memory, and speed of processing) and to determine whether these relations between social support and cognition are moderated by age or sex.

Method.
A sample of 2,613 individuals between the ages of 18 and 99 years completed a battery of cognitive tests and a questionnaire assessing aspects of social support. A measure of general intelligence was computed using principal components analysis. Multiple regressions were used to evaluate whether each aspect of support and/or its interactions with age or sex predicted each cognitive ability and g.

Results.
Several aspects of social support were significantly related to all five cognitive abilities and to g. When g was included as a predictor, there were few relations with specific cognitive abilities. Age and sex did not moderate any of the relations.

Discussion.
These results suggest that contact with family and friends, emotional and informational support, anticipated support, and negative interactions are related to cognition, whereas satisfaction with and tangible support were not. In addition, these aspects of support were primarily related to g, with the exception of family contact. Social support– cognition relations are comparable across the life span and the sexes.

Saturday, January 30, 2016

Death Penalty Symposium at Washington & Lee



----
Death Penalty Symposium at Washington & Lee
// CrimProf Blog

The annual Lara D. Gass Symposium at the Washington and Lee University School of Law will focus this year on the controversial case of Joseph M. Giarratano, using his story to explore the ethical, legal and public policy issues surrounding...
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PEBS Neuroethics Roundup (JHU) [feedly]



----
PEBS Neuroethics Roundup (JHU)
// Neuroethics & Law Blog

Last Edition's Most Popular Article(s): Call for Proposals, Center for Cognition and Neuroethics In The Popular Press: How Meditation, Placebos and Virtual Reality Help Power 'Mind Over Body', NPR Digital Intuition, Nature Magazine Scientists Move Closer to Understanding Schizophrenia's Cause,...
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Monday, January 4, 2016

Atkins ID/MR death penalty court decision: Agee v Oregon (2015)



Cleaning out my folders and I discovered that I failed to post an Atkins decision made in December.  Agee v Oregon (2015) is now available via the link and in the court decision blog roll.

Sunday, December 20, 2015

Sharing It's getting bigger all the time: Estimating the Flynn effect from secular brain mass increases in Britain and Germany via BrowZine

It's getting bigger all the time: Estimating the Flynn effect from secular brain mass increases in Britain and Germany
Woodley of Menie, Michael A.; Peñaherrera, Mateo A.; Fernandes, Heitor B.F.; Becker, David; Flynn, James R.
Learning and Individual Differences, Vol. 45 – 2016: 95 - 100

10.1016/j.lindif.2015.11.004

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Wednesday, December 16, 2015

When Phrenology Was Used in Court



When Phrenology Was Used in Court

In the 1830s, phrenology was just beginning to garner the veneer of legitimacy.Image by Slate, illustration via Library of Congress In November 1834, a 9-year-old boy…

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Monday, December 14, 2015

RE: J Am Acad Psychiatry Law Table of Contents for December 2015; Vol. 43, No. 4

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Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online
December 2015; Vol. 43, No. 4

EDITORIALS

American Psychiatry Should Join the Call to Abolish Solitary Confinement
Kenneth L. Appelbaum
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:406-415
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/406

Cleburne and the Pursuit of Equal Protection for Individuals With Mental Disorders
Steven K. Hoge
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:416-422
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/416


BIOGRAPHY

John Leonard Young, MD, MTh, CSC: Philosopher, Priest, and Forensic Psychiatrist
Ezra E. H. Griffith
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:423-427
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/423


Regular Articles

Application and Utility of Psychodynamic Principles in Forensic Assessment
Eugene F. Simopoulos and Bruce Cohen
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:428-437
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/428.abstract

Commentary: Coming Full Circle—Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamics, and Forensic Psychiatry
Angela M. Hegarty
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:438-443
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/438.abstract

Outpatient Psychiatrists' Practices for Requesting Prior Treatment Records
Patricia R. Recupero and Samara E. Harms
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:444-450
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/444.abstract

Commentary: Bringing Order to Chaos—How Psychiatrists Know the Standard of Care
Jamison E. Rogers, Chelsea L. Neumann, and Wade C. Myers
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:451-455
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/451.abstract

A Proposed Algorithm for the Pharmacotherapy of Impulsive Aggression
Alan R. Felthous and Matthew S. Stanford
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:456-467
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/456.abstract

Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients
Charles C. Dike, Elizabeth Nicholson, and John L. Young
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:468-475
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/468.abstract

Treatment of Depression in Voluntary Versus Mandated Physicians
R. Scott Johnson, J. Christopher Fowler, Kristi A. Sikes, Jon G. Allen, and John M. Oldham
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:476-482
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/476.abstract

Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar
Richard L. Frierson, Mary S. Boyd, and Angela Harper
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:483-491
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/483.abstract


Analysis and Commentary

Hoarding, Housing, and DSM-5
Kenneth J. Weiss and Aneela Khan
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:492-498
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/492.abstract

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Update: Forensic Neuropsychiatric Implications
Hal S. Wortzel and Robert P. Granacher, Jr
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:499-505
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/499.abstract


Reflections and Narratives

Forensic Examinees Asking Probing Questions
Stanley L. Brodsky and Rachel L. deLacy
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:506-509
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/506


Correction

Statement of Correction

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:510
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/510


Legal Digest

Conflicting Expert Witness Testimony in Insanity Defense
Richard C. Geary III and Kari-Beth Law
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:511-512
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/511

Mental Health Concerns and Equitable Tolling
Hosain Manesh and Christopher Fields
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:512-514
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/512

Defendant's Claims of Inadequate Counsel in Death Penalty Case
Jonathan Dunlop and Craig Lemmen
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:514-516
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/514

Involuntary Treatment for Restoration of Trial Capacity and the Role of Trial Courts
Gomathie Chelvayohan and Craig Lemmen
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:516-518
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/516

Choosing Not to Pursue a Mental Health Defense in a Capital Case
Dorothy Gotlib and Thomas Fluent
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:518-520
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/518

Claims of Incompetency in Death Penalty Proceedings
Brianna Newhouse and Craig Lemmen
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:520-522
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/520

Analyzing Whether Mental Abnormality Negates a Culpable State of Mind at the Time of the Crime
Daniel T. Hackman and Phillip J. Resnick
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:522-524
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/522

Standard for the Disclosure of Mental Health Records When Damages Are Sought for Nonspecific Mental Disability and Mental Pain and Suffering
Nicole Graham and Sherif Soliman
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:524-526
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/524

Determining Intellectual Disability in a Post-Atkins Death Penalty Case
Cortney Kohberger and Stephen Noffsinger
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:526-529
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/526

Privileged Communication Between a Patient and Clinician
Shree Sarathy and Sara West
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:529-531
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/529

Prosecutorial Misconduct and Violation of the Brady Rule in a Case Involving Intellectual Disability
Sasha Rai and Richard P. Martinez
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:531-533
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/531

Defendant With an Intellectual Disability Appealed for a New Trial Based on the State's Withholding Evidence
Sarah Flynn and Richard Martinez
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:533-535
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/533

Sex Reassignment Surgery in a Correctional Setting
Christine Petrich and Richard Martinez
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:535-538
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/535


Books and Media

Stahl's Illustrated Violence: Neural Circuits, Genetics and Treatment
Angela M. Hegarty
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:539-540
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/539

Forensic Evaluation and Treatment of Juveniles: Innovation and Best Practice
Cheryl D. Wills
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:540-541
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/540

Serial Killers: The Psychosocial Development of Humanity's Worst Offenders
Jennifer Piel
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2015; 43:541-542
http://www.jaapl.org/content/43/4/541



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